Rosettastein Paketverwaltung

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Dieser Artikel beschreibt unterschiedliche Möglichkeiten der Paketverwaltung unter Linux. Wie auf dem historisch belegten Wikipedia.png Rosetta-Stein sollen einfache Befehle in die "Sprache" einer anderen Distribution übersetzt werden.

Benutzer anderer Distributionen können von Pacman durch die Verwendung eines einfachen Hüllskriptes profitieren: pacapt. Dies Skript ist in bash geschrieben und kann auch von Arch-Benutzern, die mit Paketformaten anderer Distributionen umgehen müssen, verwendet werden.

Pakete namentlich installieren

Das angegebene Paket wird installiert.

Arch Linux Red Hat Debian openSUSE Gentoo
pacman -S yum install apt-get install zypper install emerge [-a]

Pakete namentlich deinstallieren

Das angegebene Paket wird deinstalliert,

Arch Linux Red Hat Debian openSUSE Gentoo
pacman -Rc yum remove apt-get remove zypper remove emerge -C

Paketquellen durchsuchen

Paketsuche anhand eines Ausdrucks im Namen oder in der (Kurz-)Beschreibung. Die durchsuchten Felder weichen bei jedem Werkzeug ab.

Arch Linux Red Hat Debian openSUSE Gentoo
pacman -Ss

apt-cache search|

zypper search emerge -S

Aktualisierung

Update aller installierter Pakete.

Arch Linux Red Hat Debian openSUSE Gentoo
pacman -Syu yum update apt-get upgrade zypper update emerge -u world

Andere Form des obigen Befehls zur Umsetzung komplexerer Aufgaben, – z.B. distributionsweite Aktualisierung. Während der obige Befehl Pakete nicht aktualisiert, bei denen sich Abhängigkeiten geändert haben, führt diese Form solche durch.

Arch Linux Red Hat Debian openSUSE Gentoo
pacman -Syu yum distro-sync apt-get dist-upgrade zypper dup emerge -uDN world

Erneute Installation eines Pakets, ohne sich um Abhängigkeiten zu kümmern.

Arch Linux Red Hat Debian openSUSE Gentoo
pacman -S yum reinstall apt-get install --reinstall

emerge [-a]

Lokale Installation, das heißt: Installation ohne Rückgriff auf ein Repository.

Arch Linux Red Hat Debian openSUSE Gentoo
pacman -U yum localinstall dpkg -i && apt-get install -f zypper in /path/to/local.rpm emerge

Lokales Update ohne Rückgriff auf ein Repository.

Arch Linux Red Hat Debian openSUSE Gentoo
pacman -U yum localupdate n/a n/a emerge

Paketverwaltung

Aufspüren und ggf. Reparatur kaputtgegangener Abhängigkeiten.

Arch Linux Red Hat Debian openSUSE Gentoo
pacman dep level - testdb, shared lib level - findbrokenpkgs oder lddd package-cleanup --problems apt-get --fix-broken zypper verify revdep-rebuild

Pakete nur herunterladen ohne Auspacken oder Installation.

Arch Linux Red Hat Debian openSUSE Gentoo
pacman -Sw yumdownloader apt-get --download-only zypper --download-only emerge --fetchonly

Löschen von Paketen, die nur als Abhängigkeit anderer Pakete installiert wurden, die z.B. nicht mehr installiert sind.

Arch Linux Red Hat Debian openSUSE Gentoo
pacman -Qdtq | pacman -Rs - yum autoremove apt-get autoremove zypper rm -u emerge --depclean

Herunterladen der Quellpakete zu einem Paket.

Arch Linux Red Hat Debian openSUSE Gentoo
ABS && makepkg -o yumdownloader --source apt-get source / debcheckout zypper source-install emerge --fetchonly

Löschen von Paketen, die in keinem Repo mehr vorkommen.

Arch Linux Red Hat Debian openSUSE Gentoo
n/a package-cleanup --orphans n/a n/a n/a

Installieren bzw. Löschen von Paketen, die Abhängigkeiten zum Bau eines anderen Paketes sind. Benötigt Information aus dem Quellpaket.

Arch Linux Red Hat Debian openSUSE Gentoo
automatisch yum-builddep apt-get build-dep zypper si -d emerge -o

Ein Paket von Aktualisierungen ausschließen.

Arch Linux Red Hat Debian openSUSE Gentoo
IgnorePkg in der pacman.conf exclude in der yum.conf echo "$PKGNAME hold" \
| dpkg --set-selections
Paketname in der /etc/zypp/locks /etc/portage/package.mask



Warn 16x16.png Dieser Artikel oder Artikelabschnitt ist noch nicht vollständig!


Hinweis: Wiki-Autoren: Bitte wie oben die Tabelle weiter aufdröseln, und gegebenenfalls die Zeilen logisch in die Abschnitte einpassen. Gegebenenfalls neue logische Abschnitte anlegen. Texte nach Möglichkeit sinngemäß übersetzen (muss nicht alles auf einen Schlag gemacht werden *g*). --Dirk (Diskussion) 03:58, 19. Nov. 2014 (CET)



Den Auschluss wieder aufheben Den Paketeintrag aus der IgnorePkg-Zeile in der /etc/pacman.conf entfernen yum.conf <--”exclude” option (remove/amend) echo "$PKGNAME install" | dpkg --set-selections Paketnamen aus der /etc/zypp/locks entfernen /etc/portage/package.mask (oder package.unmask)
Alle Ausschlüsse auflisten cat /etc/pacman.conf yum.conf (research needed) /etc/apt/preferences View /etc/zypp/locks cat /etc/portage/package.mask
Einen Haltepunkt für ein Rollback zum System hinzufügen (nicht nötig, wird bei jeder Transaction gemacht) n/a
Einen Haltepunkt entfernen N/A N/A n/a
Provide a list of all system checkpoints N/A yum history list n/a
Rolls entire packages back to a certain date or checkpoint. N/A yum history rollback n/a
Undo a single specified transaction. N/A yum history undo n/a
Mark a package previously installed as a dependency as explicitly required. pacman -D --asexplicit aptitude unmarkauto emerge --select
Install package(s) as dependency / without marking as explicitly required. pacman -S --asdeps emerge -1
Package information management
Get a dump of the whole system information - Prints, Saves or similar the current state of the package management system. Preferred output is text or XML. (Note: Why either-or here? No tool offers the option to choose the output format.) (see /var/lib/pacman/local) (see /var/lib/rpm/Packages) apt-cache stats n/a emerge --info
Show all or most information about a package. The tools' verbosity for the default command vary. But with options, the tools are on par with each other. pacman -[S|Q]i yum list or info apt-cache show / apt-cache policy zypper info zypper if emerge -S; emerge -pv; eix
Search for package(s) by searching the expression in name, description, short description. What exact fields are being searched by default varies in each tool. Mostly options bring tools on par. pacman -Ss yum search apt-cache search zypper search zypper se [-s] emerge -S
Lists packages which have an update available. Note: Some provide special commands to limit the output to certain installation sources, others use options. pacman -Qu yum list updates yum check-update apt-get upgrade -> n zypper list-updates zypper patch-check (just for patches) emerge -uDNp world
Display a list of all packages in all installation sources that are handled by the packages management. Some tools provide options or additional commands to limit the output to a specific installation source. pacman -Sl yum list available apt-cache dumpavail apt-cache dump (Cache only) apt-cache pkgnames zypper packages emerge -ep world
Displays packages which provide the given exp. aka reverse provides. Mainly a shortcut to search a specific field. Other tools might offer this functionality through the search command. pkgfile <filename> yum provides / yum whatprovides apt-file search <filename> zypper what-provides zypper wp equery belongs (only installed packages); pfl
Display packages which require X to be installed, aka show reverse/ dependencies. pacman -Sii yum resolvedep apt-cache rdepends / aptitude search ~Dpattern IN PROGRESS equery depends
Display packages which conflict with given expression (often package). Search can be used as well to mimic this function. (none) repoquery --whatconflicts aptitude search '~Cpattern' IN PROGRESS
List all packages which are required for the given package, aka show dependencies. pacman -[S|Q]i yum deplist apt-cache depends / apt-cache show IN PROGRESS emerge -ep
List what the current package provides yum provides IN PROGRESS equery files
List the files that the package holds. Again, this functionality can be mimicked by other more complex commands. pacman -Ql $pkgname
pkgfile -l
repoquery -l $pkgname dpkg-query -L $pkgname IN PROGRESS equery files
List all packages that require a particular package repoquery --whatrequires [--recursive] equery depends -a
Search all packages to find the one which holds the specified file. auto-apt is using this functionality. pkgfile -s yum provides / yum whatprovides apt-file search IN PROGRESS equery belongs
Display all packages that the specified packages obsoletes. yum list obsoletes apt-cache show IN PROGRESS
Verify dependencies of the complete system. Used if installation process was forcefully killed. testdb yum deplist apt-get check n/a emerge -uDN world
Generates a list of installed packages pacman -Q yum list installed dpkg --get-selections zypper emerge -ep world
List packages that are installed but are not available in any installation source (anymore). pacman -Qm yum list extras deborphan zypper se -si | grep 'System Packages' eix-test-obsolete
List packages that were recently added to one of the installation sources, i.e. which are new to it. (none) yum list recent aptitude search '~N' / aptitude forget-new n/a eix-diff
Show a log of actions taken by the software management. cat /var/log/pacman.log yum history cat /var/log/yum.log cat /var/log/dpkg.log cat /var/log/zypp/history located in /var/log/portage
Clean up all local caches. Options might limit what is actually cleaned. Autoclean removes only unneeded, obsolete information. pacman -Sc
pacman -Scc
yum clean all apt-get clean / apt-get autoclean / aptitude clean zypper clean eclean distfiles
Add a local package to the local package cache mostly for debugging purposes. cp $pkgname /var/cache/pacman/pkg/ apt-cache add n/a cp $srcfile /usr/portage/distfiles
Display the source package to the given package name(s) repoquery -s apt-cache showsrc n/a
Generates an output suitable for processing with dotty for the given package(s). apt-cache dotty n/a
Set the priority of the given package to avoid upgrade, force downgrade or to overwrite any default behavior. Can also be used to prefer a package version from a certain installation source. ${EDITOR} /etc/pacman.conf
Modify HoldPkg and/or IgnorePkg arrays
yum-plugin-priorities and yum-plugin-protect-packages /etc/apt/preferences, apt-cache policy zypper mr -p ${EDITOR} /etc/portage/package.keywords
Add a line with =category/package-version
Remove a previously set priority /etc/apt/preferences zypper mr -p ${EDITOR} /etc/portage/package.keywords
remove offending line
Show a list of set priorities. apt-cache policy /etc/apt/preferences n/a cat /etc/portage/package.keywords
Ignores problems that priorities may trigger. n/a
Installation sources management ${EDITOR} /etc/pacman.conf ${EDITOR} /etc/yum.repos.d/${REPO}.repo ${EDITOR} /etc/apt/sources.list layman
Add an installation source to the system. Some tools provide additional commands for certain sources, others allow all types of source URI for the add command. Again others, like apt and yum force editing a sources list. apt-cdrom is a special command, which offers special options design for CDs/DVDs as source. ${EDITOR} /etc/pacman.conf ${EDITOR} /etc/yum.repos.d/${REPO}.repo apt-cdrom add zypper service-add layman, overlays
Refresh the information about the specified installation source(s) or all installation sources. pacman -Sy yum clean expire-cache && yum check-update apt-get update zypper refresh zypper ref layman -f
Prints a list of all installation sources including important information like URI, alias etc. cat /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist cat /etc/yum.repos.d/* zypper service-list layman -l
Disable an installation source for an operation yum --disablerepo=${REPO} emerge package::repo-to-use
Download packages from a different version of the distribution than the one installed. yum --releasever=${VERSION} apt-get install -t release package/ apt-get install package/release (deps not covered) echo "category/package ~amd64" >> /etc/portage/package.keywords && emerge package
Other commands
Start a shell to enter multiple commands in one session yum shell apt-config shell zypper shell
Package Verification
Single package pacman -Qk[k] <package> rpm -V <package> debsums rpm -V <package> equery check
All packages pacman -Qk[k] rpm -Va debsums rpm -Va equery check
Package Querying
List installed local packages along with version pacman -Q rpm -qa dpkg -l emerge -e world
Display local package information: Name, version, description, etc. pacman -Qi rpm -qi dpkg -s emerge -pv and emerge -S
Display remote package information: Name, version, description, etc. pacman -Si yum info apt-cache show / aptitude show emerge -pv and emerge -S
Display files provided by local package pacman -Ql rpm -ql dpkg -L equery files
Display files provided by a remote package pkgfile -l repoquery -l pfl
Query the package which provides FILE pacman -Qo rpm -qf (installed only) or yum whatprovides (everything) dpkg -S/dlocate equery belongs
Query a package supplied on the command line rather than an entry in the package management database pacman -Qp rpm -qp dpkg -I
Show the changelog of a package pacman -Qc rpm -q --changelog apt-get changelog equery changes -f
Search locally installed package for names or descriptions pacman -Qs aptitude search '~i(~nexpr|~dexpr)' eix -S -I
List packages not required by any other package pacman -Qt package-cleanup --all --leaves deborphan -anp1
Building Packages
Build a package makepkg -s rpmbuild -ba (normal) mock (in chroot) debuild rpmbuild -ba ebuild; quickpkg
Check for possible packaging issues rpmlint lintian repoman
List the contents of a package file pacman -Qpl <file> rpmls rpm -qpl dpkg -c rpm -qpl
Extract a package tar -Jxvf rpm2cpio | cpio -vid ar vx | tar -zxvf data.tar.gz rpm2cpio | cpio -vid tar -jxvf
Query a package supplied on the command line rather than an entry in the package management database pacman -Qp rpm -qp dpkg -I
Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SUSE/openSUSE Gentoo